Fig. Notably, the magnitude of increases in protein levels of NE and PR3 was significantly higher in T1D patients diagnosed within 1 year compared with the other two groups with longer disease duration (all P < 0.01, Fig. 1A and B).

Proteinase 3 (PR3)

Proteinase 3 (PR3), also known as myeloblastin, Wegener autoantigen, PRTN3 and NP- 4, is one of the hematopoietic serine proteases localized in the primary granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs).

 The primary function of PR3 is recognized as to participate in direct intracellular killing of phagocytosed pathogens in phagolysosomes and degradation of extracellular matrix components at inflammatory sites.

 PR3 is identified as the target autoantigen of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in Wegener granulomatosis.

 Increased PR3 levels have been reported in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and in subjects with type 1 diabetes.

Circulating protein levels and enzymatic activities of NE and PR3 are dramatically increased in T1D patients.

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