GDF-15 (Growth Differentiation Factor 15)
Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293
>97% determined by Coomassie® Blue Staining
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is synthesized as a 40 kDa precursor and is then proteolytically cleaved to be released as a disulfide-linked homodimer that is biologically active. The expression of GDF-15 is dramatically increased in many types of cancer. Tumor overproduction of GDF-15 induces appetite suppression and subsequent weight loss. Overexpression or pharmacological infusion of GDF15 reduces food intake and body weight and improves metabolic profiles in various metabolic disease models in both rodents and monkeys. GDF15 activates ERK1/2 and Akt pathway via binding to its receptor GDNF receptor α-like (GFRAL). Therefore, GDF15 has been proposed to be a potential target for the maintenance of energy homeostasis and treatment of tumor anorexia, as well as of obesity.
STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY
10nM of recombinant hGDF15 is able to activate AKT and ERK phosphorylation in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the GDF15 receptor complex GFRAL and RET51.
AMINO ACID SEQUENCE
MRGSHHHHHH GMASMTGGQQ MGRDLYDDDD KDRWGSLEEN LYFQGAAWWK SWIEQEGVTV
KSSSHFNPDP DAETLYKAME TKGIGTNEQA IIDVLTKRSN TQRQQIAKSF KAQFGKDLTE
TLKSELSGKF ERLIVALMET YPPYRYEAKE LHDAMETKGL GTKEGVIIEI LASRTKNQLR
EIMETKAYEE DYGSSLEEDI QADTSGYLER ILVCLLQGSR DDVSSFVDPG LALQDAQDLY
AAGEKIRGTD EMETKFITIL CTRSATHLLR VFEEYEKIAN KSIEDSIKSE THGSLEEAME
TLTVVKCTQN LHSYFAERLY YAMETKGAGT RDGTLIRNIV SRSEIDLNLI KCHFKKMETY
GKTLSSMETI METEDTSGDY KNALLSLVGS DP
Store lyophilized protein at –20°C. Aliquot reconstituted protein and store at –80°C. Avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles.
1. Briefly centrifuge before opening the vial.
2. Add 200µl sterile deionized water to prepare a stock solution of approximately 0.1 mg/mL and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely.
QUALITY CONTROL TEST
BCA to determine quantity of the protein.
SDS PAGE to determine purity of the protein.
Lyophilized in a solution containing 50mM Na2HPO4 and 500mM NaCl, pH 8.0.
ELISA and Western Blotting.
Lyophilized at 1 mg/mL in storage buffer (50mM Tris, 300-500mM NaCl, 10% Glycerol, PH8.0).
<0.01EU per 1µg of protein by LAL method.