Human Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15)
GDF-15 plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. It has been observed that in many types of cancers, such as colorectal, breast, and prostate, the expression of GDF-15 is dramatically increased.
Additionally, in cancer patients, serum levels of GDF-15 are elevated, which are of value in disease diagnosis and stratification. GDF-15 is strongly induced by the tumor suppressor gene p53 and other anti- tumorigenic agents, such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ. These findings suggest that GDF-15 may be a downstream target of those signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Through the modulation of neuronal pathways important in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis, GDF-15 mediates cancer-induced anorexia and weight loss.
STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY
10nM of recombinant hGDF15 is able to activate AKT and ERK phosphorylation in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the GDF15 receptor complex GFRAL and RET51.
AMINO ACID SEQUENCE
Store lyophilized protein at –20°C. Aliquot reconstituted protein and store at –80°C. Avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles.
1. Briefly centrifuge before opening the vial.
2. Add 200µl sterile deionized water to prepare a stock solution of approximately 0.1 mg/mL and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely.
QUALITY CONTROL TEST
BCA to determine quantity of the protein.
SDS PAGE to determine purity of the protein.
Lyophilized in a solution containing 50mM Na2HPO4 and 500mM NaCl, pH 8.0.
ELISA and Western Blotting.
<0.01EU per 1µg of protein by LAL method.