Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress responsive cytokine. It is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes, adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in normal and pathological condition.
The expression of GDF-15 is dramatically increased in many types of cancer. Tumor overproduction of GDF-15 induces appetite suppression and subsequent weight loss. Overexpression or pharmacological infusion of GDF15 reduces food intake and body weight and improves metabolic profiles in various metabolic disease models in both rodents and monkeys.
Furtheremore, higher level of GDF-15 is associated with increased cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality; it plays a pivotal role in development and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, coronary artery diseases, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, cancer, and cognitive impairment
Source: Human embryonic kidney cell
Source: HEK293-drived human GDF15 protein
Structure: Disulfide-linked homodimer
Purity: >97% determined by Coomassie® Blue Staining
Endotoxin Level: <0.01EU per 1µg of protein by LAL method.
Activity: 10nM of recombinant hGDF15 is able to activate AKT and ERK phosphorylation in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the GDF15 receptor complex GFRAL and RET51.